Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi listen (help·info) (Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી, IPA:[moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmtʂən̪d̪ ɡän̪d̪ʱi]) (2 October 1869– 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. He was the pioneer of satyagraha—resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, firmly founded upon ahimsa or total non-violence—which led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. He is commonly known around the world as Mahatma Gandhi (Sanskrit: महात्मा mahātmā or \"Great Soul\", an honorific first applied to him by Rabindranath Tagore), and in India also as Bapu (Gujarati: બાપુ bāpu or \"Father\"). He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation; his birthday, 2 October, is
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